Criminal enforcement of cartel laws ultimately relies on the extent to which extradition is a realistic prospect. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) has secured its first litigated extradition on antitrust charges: Romano Pisciotti, an Italian national, was extradited from Germany (where he was catching a connecting flight) on charges related
to the marine-hose cartel. As more jurisdictions criminalize cartel conduct and increase cooperation with enforcement regimes around the globe, the threat of extradition in cartel cases becomes more and more real. The extradition risk needs to be taken into account in shaping global cartel compliance programs, and in advising companies and executives caught in cartel conduct.