Vertical restraints and e-commerce

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In this paper, I present how e-commerce has affected market strategies and competition in European markets and I analyze the economic and legal aspects of vertical restraints that are commonly applied in online markets. By combining available empirical evidence with theories of harm and by reviewing relevant case law I define the main anticompetitive concerns related to each category of vertical restraints.While the competition policy framework is adequate to address these concerns,we need updated guidelines that provide guidance on how the new vertical restraints linked to e-commerce should be treated.I provide recommendations over the priorities and challenges that need to be addressed in light of the preparation of the new vertical agreements guidelines of 2022.