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Recent Economic Applications in EU Merger Control: UPP and Beyond

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More than a decade since the introduction of the ‘significant impediment to effective competition’ test (SIEC test) in the EU, refined economic methods have become increasingly relevant to the evaluation of mergers. This paper addresses three of the more important assessment methods in this context: the UPP (upward pricing pressure) method, the analysis of ‘natural experiments’ and the analysis of bidding data.