A commissioners’ history of cartel enforcement in Europe: Multidimensional comparison of administrations

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To compare cartel enforcement activity of DG-Comp’s five Commissioners for Competition, we compiled a database of the 722 fines imposed by the Commissioners on 110 different cartels over a 26-year period. We also compared activity during each Commissioner’s term on six metrics: total fine amount, total number of fines, average fine, median fine, number of cartels fined, and ratio of zero-amount fines to the number of cartels fined. This comparison provides a useful multidimensional assessment of cartel enforcement, indicating a recent shift towards larger fines imposed on fewer but larger companies, and robust use of an enhanced leniency program.