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Monopolization standards in US Competition Law: Evolution and evaluation

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The aim of this article is to provide a short overview and analysis of the US antitrust law. Section 2 of the Sherman Act stipulates that it is unlawful to monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations. The article presents case law that reflects the evolution of monopolization standards and provides some interpretations of undertakings’ behavior that can be defined as monopolization. US practice shows that monopolization standards have changed several times, in accordance with the need to increasingly consider economic efficiencies and the consequences of making wrong decisions, which may lead to reduced innovation and other behaviors of undertakings that increase economic efficiency and improve competition, which is a type I error.