Liquid Gold: Antitrust and Consumer Protection in the Human Milk Industry

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Human milk is a booming industry, and one that is vulnerable to anticompetitive behavior. As pervasive as human milk is, and how essential it is to the development of all humans, it is an often-overlooked product in the marketplace. This paper will explore the three sectors of the industry in the United States—nonprofit milk banks, for-profit milk product manufacturers, and peer-to-peer private transactions. Each sector of the industry presents its own antitrust and consumer protection issues.